Saturday, March 14, 2020
School Leadership That Works From Research To Results Chapter Five Summary The discussion in chapter four brings out the importance of each of the 21 responsibilities individually but says very little to show how they relate to each other. For the relationships to be identified, a factor analysis was conducted based on responses to a questionnaire used to assess the behavior of principalsÃ¢â¬â¢ in relation to the 21 responsibilities.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on School Leadership That Works: From Research To Results specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is the subject matter of this chapter. An important discovery that resulted from the analysis was that two traits; first-order and second-order changes, appeared to underlie the responsibilities (Marzano, Waters, McNulty 2005). First- and Second-Order Change First-order change is incremental in nature and is usually the first option sought after by school leadership when faced with a problem. Its success relie s mainly on past occurrences and the application of fresh ideas is often not an option. To a large extent, it can only prepare an individual for common situations. It is, however, quite challenging to try using this approach on new challenges for which solutions are not readily available. Second-order change on the other hand is radical and for any benefits to be realized, steadfast leadership is a must. It entails conceptualizing a problem differently or adopting a completely new strategy. The Difficulty of the Second-Order Change The adoption of second-order change has failed in a number of occasions and in discouraged innovation in many areas. There is a high tendency for humans to look at nearly all problems as if they were of first-order nature and this is one of the reasons why it has been difficult to advance the use of second-order change. Also, second-order change is to a certain extent unpopular with many as it strongly disregards the status quo which most people are deter mined to maintain. The use of second-order change has also been a dreadful venture for many who may not be ready to accommodate criticisms. One has to be quite resilient to succeed using this form of leadership. Leadership for First-Order Change: Managing the Daily Life of a School The outcome of the factor analysis clearly shows how the 21 responsibilities interact and how they can be applied to achieve change. Involvement in the day-to-day changes in a school will require that all the 21 principal responsibilities to be seen as important although to a varying degree. Despite the fact that the responsibilities are ranked in order of importance, none of them should receive little importance.Advertising Looking for coursework on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The routine business of schooling demands corrections and alterations which, by definition are first order in nature and as such, first-order change is viewed as a by-product of the day-to-day functions of the school. Relating the 21 responsibilities to the first-order change shows that these responsibilities define the standard operating procedures in a school. They are regarded as the management tools of effective school leaders. Leadership for Second-Order Change Unlike first-order, second-order change is linked to 7 of the 21 responsibilities and it presents a dramatic departure from what is anticipated both in stating a problem and providing a solution. The change manifests itself only in the context of a specific issue or problem being solved. Central to second-order change is innovation and just as in the case of first-order change, a leader should not be misguided by the ranking to underrate any of the responsibilities. From the factor analysis, it can also be noted that three of the responsibilities identified as very important to the second-order change are ranked low in terms of relative importance to the first-order change. Some of the 21 Responsibilities mentioned are adversely affected by second-order change. A school leader might have to endure the perception that culture, communication, order and routine, and the level of input have all deteriorated as a result of innovation with culture having the strongest negative relationship to the second-order change. Conclusion The differences noticeable between first- and second-order changes and the regular tendency to look at all changes as first-order provide a good foundation to start digging into the failure of previous innovations. There is a very high possibility that these innovations were second-order changes that were managed as though they were first-order changes and hence the failure. Reference Marzano, R.J., Waters, T., McNulty, B.T. (2005). School Leadership That Works: From Research To Results. Alexandria Va. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Humanities summary - Essay Example This gave them equal power with the patricians in making laws. These democratic reforms benefited the political system of Rome and made the state stronger than ever. Josephus described the remarkable qualities of the Roman army which enabled the empire to expand in territory. First, the army men were highly disciplined. They trained everyday as if they were engaged in actual battles. They obeyed their masters and never broke any laws. Second, the army men had great sense of dedication to duty. They battle not for fortune but for the glory of the empire. The discipline and dedication that runs in their blood is then manifested into triumphant battles Third, the army men are very precise in their actions. Each man had his specific place, specific duty, and specific contribution to the army. Their battle skills are also well-calculated. This precision often leads the army to effortless victories. Finally, the army camp is not just a place for battle preparation but a place that stands as an entire city in itself. The tents, streets, gates, are perfectly designed to ensure maximum security and control of the camp. Seneca shared his thoughts on how to achieve peace of mind. First, know your self and be aware of the strengths and weaknesses that come with it. People either overestimate or underestimate themselves which leads to emotional disturbances and conflicts with other people. Second, choose a career whose demands meet your capabilities. Working beyond your capabilities may imbalance physical, emotional, and mental heath. Third, do not expect that the good deeds you have done to other people will be reciprocated. They are never in debt for your kind actions. Giving time, money, or service to other people must be done with sincerity. Fourth, choose the right friends. Trustworthy, sincere, and cheerful are qualities of an ideal friend. Finally, money afflicts society so just be contented with what you possess. The rich suffer as much as the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Hertzian Contact Stresses - Essay Example Hertz identifies that the abutment of non-conforming forms was an example of stress accumulation that could be explicated liberated of the geometry and physics of stress field generated in the bodies. According to Heinrich Hertz," we can confine our attention to that part of each body which is very close to the point of contact, since here the stresses are extremely great compared with those occurring elsewhere, and consequently depends only to the smallest extent on the forces applied to other parts of the bodies." By circumscribing concentration to that fragment of the garb padlocked to the areas in contact with each other, the forces and wrench can be observed by evasion the slender cal arch of the surfaces of the two contacted bodies. The hertz theory is stimulated by two factors namely quadratic terms are used to delineate the geometry of general curved surface areas and the area of the body that have a curved surface mutilate as though they have elastic half spaces. From time t o time efforts are made to enhance hertz theory by considering higher order terms in the geometric elaboration of cylindrical or spherical profiles and by calculating the deformations of truly cylinder or spherical solids. Considering the hertz theory with respect to Marine engineering components, it has been observed that these components are designed to accommodate a defined life. Considering the case of Roll Bearings, which are used in ships, has approximately life of 65,000 hours and so accordingly this requires its replacement quite frequently during the tenure of the ship. The failure of these bearings is consorted with the inner raceway. The failures, which include the center radial, bearing of thrust bearing pair and radial drive end bearing, are also experienced. A very close examination depicts that the failure is the result of sub-surface fatigue. Once the cracks are instigated then it lead to grows and promulgate sub-surfaces. Following figure shows typical failure morphology of bearings This figure shows that Hertizan stresses plays important role in this failure process. On canvassing and implicating the Hertz theory in above scenario it is serene that shear forces are effectuated sub-surface and repose on plane close to
Thursday, January 30, 2020
CassiusÃ¢â¬â¢ Logical Persuasion Essay From Julius Caesar, Act 1 Scene 2, Cassius attempts to persuade Brutus on joining the conspiracy against Caesar through logos. To convince Brutus to join the conspiracy, Cassius starts telling Brutus that Ã¢â¬Å"I was born free as Caesar. So were you. We both have fed as well, and we can both endure the winterÃ¢â¬â¢s cold as well as heÃ¢â¬ (I. ii. 100). When Cassius states Caesar as someone like them, Cassius is using logic to explain to Brutus that they are all equal to Caesar, not inferior. Cassius believes that Brutus and he deserve just as much power as Caesar, so he does not want Brutus to be supporting Caesar, but going against him. Even though Cassius says he is equal to Caesar, he then tells Brutus a story about how he saves Caesar from almost drowning and also recalls a story of Caesar in Spain saying Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Alas,Ã¢â¬ it cried, Ã¢â¬â¢give me some drink, Titinius,Ã¢â¬â¢ as a sick girlÃ¢â¬ (I. ii. 139). The connotation of Ã¢â¬Å"girlÃ¢â¬ is a female child, not manly and powerful. So by telling the stories, Brutus now acknowledges that Caesar is weak because he is able to drown and get sick and Brutus will no longer look upon someone who cries Ã¢â¬Å"as a sick girlÃ¢â¬ . Brutus is persuaded by CassiusÃ¢â¬â¢ story that Caesar is not all that power and that they should not be serve Caesar as if he is a god. On the other hand, Cassius contradicts himself multiple ways by saying Caesar is Ã¢â¬Å"like a Colossus and we petty men walk under his huge legs and peep about to find ourselves dishonorable graves. Men at some time are masters of their fates. Ã¢â¬ (I. ii. 137). Cassius portrays Caesar as a power person who will become a tyrant and that he is more superior to everyone else. Because Cassius and Brutus does not like tyrants or dictators, Cassius indirectly tells him to not support Caesar, and instead, tries hinting to Brutus that it is time for him to take control of Rome. The logos Cassius uses persuades Brutus to not let someone who is equal to him, such as Julius Caesar, to rule Rome.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Depictions of Beauty in the Victorian Era Missing Works Cited Ã Ã "What is beauty anyway? There's no such thing." (Pablo Picasso) The Victorians' obsession with physical appearance has been well documented by scholars. This was a society in which one's clothing was an immediate indication of what one did for a living (and by extension, one's station in life). It was a world, as John Reed puts it, "where things were as they seemed" (312). So it is not surprising to find that the Victorians also placed great faith in bodily appearance. To the Victorians, a face and figure could reveal the inner thoughts and emotions of the individual as reliably as clothing indicated his occupation. There is abundant evidence of the pervasiveness of this belief in the literature of the period. According to Reed, "Victorian literature abounds with expressions of faith in physiognomy" (336). He quotes a passage from Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre to prove the point: "Jane Eyre, for example, trusts her initial perception of Rochester, whose brow 'showed a solid enough mass of intellectual organs, but an abrupt deficiency where the suave sign of benevolence should have risen'" (146; ch. 14, Reed 336). In the Victorian novel, physical appearance was a primary means of characterization (Lefkovitz 1). A hero or heroine's beauty (or lack thereof) was probably the most important aspect of his or character. As Lefkovitz points out, beauty is always culturally defined. How then, did the Victorians define it? For women, that definition is a strange mixture of ideals. The Victorians admired both the strong, hearty, statuesque lady (modeled on Queen Victoria herself) and the weak, fainting beauty, who Lefkovitz uses the French word mourante to define: "dying, languishing, expiring, fainting, fading" (36). The former type was most popular in the first half of the century, according to Federico: A woman's body in the first decade of the century was . . . under considerable scrutiny, and the ideal against which she was measured was tall and statuesque, stately, elegant, refined . . . nothing is considered so outre [excessive] as a slender waist, while the en bon point is the ne plus ultra [utmost point; meaning a towering, powerful-looking woman] of feminine proportions. (30) Many writers embraced this strong, sculpted, large-bodied female type, if only to use her as a comparison to the more delicate beauty that became popular later. According to Lefkovitz, the two conventions meet (and clash) in George Eliot's Adam Bede: "Bessy Cranage .
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
NNamdi Collection of African- American Art is composed of musical art, literary works and other artistic works that expressed African American ideas for freedom. To speak of African American evoked many negative ideas during the human rights activism against slavery. Such ideas as post colonialism, transnational, ethnicity, race and racism, Black Nationalism and many other terms emerged during this period. According to Tololyan, 1996, the African Diaspora, as African Americans were referred to, became the paradigmatic case towards the end of the 20th century.The continued experience of the racial experience became crucial in the emergence of transnational identities of the African Americans due to their background as sons and daughters of slaves. The emergence of music as an art of expressing grievances by the African Americans in the 20th century has a relationship with the emergence of African American sensibilities. An essay, Travelling Music and musicians, the author explores the globalization of African Americans plights using music with special; focus on the exchange between African America, Europe, and the Black combined in the opposition to racial subjugation.The racial tribulations faced by the blacks brought the idea of unified black musical ethos. This consequently brought the forging of collective identity through opposition to common enemy. This brought out the ease with which the complexities of the African Americans dissolved into a binary opposition between Blacks and whites. According to Faye Harrison (1998: 617), the construct has become nearly impossible to uproot, even though currently there is an increasing multicolored and multicultural society where racial barriers are continuously sealed with interracial marriage. The contest is still on the whiteness or blackness of an individual.Faye continue to state that the unending structural quality of racism with its set of economic political, ideological as well as color hierarchies continuously places blacks at the bottom of the ladder and this consequently is the cause of ultimate contest that reinforces the tendency of binarism. Claims of Ã¢â¬ËAfricannessÃ¢â¬â¢ as idealized and articulated through music is more or less similar to the nationalistsÃ¢â¬â¢ assertions of an opposite political valence in the 20th century (Potter 1998). According to Pamela Potter, German sense of superiority in music was principally used to uphold the racial superiority ideologies.According to her study, she revealed that claims of musicÃ¢â¬â¢s attachments to the collective attachments to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s characters ca never be separated from the political and historical use to which such claims are upheld. African AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s literature is celebrated musically, spiritually, and emotionally as a sign of remembrance to the past role of art in the common struggle against social in justice. It is also important to remember that German National Socialists in the early 20th century too claimed to be musical people, considering their passionate depth and spiritual transcendence through the work of art (Potter 1998: 200-234).Potter clarifies that this should not be used to suggest that African Americans assertions of the centrality of the music can be equated to those of National Socialists, but should be used to underscore the importance of placing the spiritual and emotional dimensions in the context of solid historical as well as social practice. This article therefore links music, cultural identities, historical and political forces, and globalized economies in the 20th century with crucial and larger projects of analyzing the African American musical sensibilities.This rejects the idea of static African American essence of favoring more continuous redefined and negotiated sense of culture that springs up from generation to generation in response larger majority white race. Black Atlantic- Paul Gilroy (1993) In his book, critical Atlantic, Paul Gilroy is critica l of the debate on the African American cultural studies and arguing for the centrality of the music for the construction and maintenance of the interethnic identities.GilroyÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments centers on the multiplicity of the cultural flow between the African Americans, Caribbean, Britons, and North Americans. In his work, ships were chosen because of their symbolic middle age passage to invoke and provide his visual image for the transatlantic interaction. However, his continued work dwells in music is significant in making his point. He identifies three principles that regard relationship between race and culture. These three principle positions are: ethnic absolutism, anti-essentialism, and anti-antiessentialism.In his description of positions of black music, he believes that the music is divided between those who see the music as a source of political charge towards enhancing the blackness identity and those who would dispute the existence of such a unifying factor in any pol itical environment. According to his views, anti-essentialism is a social constructionist and ideological view of race that is often Ã¢â¬Ëinsufficiently alive to the lingering power of specifically racialised forms of power and subordinationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Gilroy 1998: 32).Gilroy expresses his displeasure by describing it as tantamount to forsaking the mass of black people in the societal system of governance. He elaborates his ideology by stating that he takes an exception to the idea that racial identity is simply an ideological effect. For Gilroy, even though he is against the idea of essentialism, race is not an imagined community, something that can be deconstructed so as to neutralize the importance of black homology.The ability of music to link several expressive styles like language, dance and clothing as well as presenting idealized ethical and social sensibilities is central in the symbolic presentation of African American settings. In understanding the spiritual and ethical a spect of the Jazz performance, the combination requires several combination of voice, the ability to play with multiple musical parameters during performance and well as understanding the cultural foundation of the music. This gives the ethical goal of the music that it eventually makes sense such that a particular group of people can identify with.Gilroy argues that this deep sense of belonging is not an escape but deep involvement of the art of music for the African Americans. This provides means of cultural integration with coping strategies for racism. In his book, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Communities StyleÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, Veit Erlmann analyses the song Ã¢â¬ËThe Lion Sleep TonightÃ¢â¬â¢. This song was done by South African Zulu migrant workers lead by Solomon Linda and was recorded at various diasporic locations. Here Erlmann is specifically interested in the way this music was altered as it was revived and re interpreted by a succession of groups like the Weavers in 1952 and the Tok ens in 1961.These two groups were all American groups. Other versions came from the collaborations between Ladysmith Black Mambazo and the Mint Juleps in 1990. On all these versions of the song, at stake here was the construction of the African American identity through music. Erlmann described this as Ã¢â¬ËEndotropic performanceÃ¢â¬â¢ to emphasize the interracial construction of identity through similar styles. These forms of identities have emerged under this increasingly globalized social life. He describes this scenario as strange because a persons understanding of him or herself in the social world is no longer coinciding with the widely dispersed locations.Jerome Harris n his essay, Ã¢â¬ËJazz on the Global StageÃ¢â¬â¢ , Jerome Harris provides an insiders analysis of the globalization of Jazz, based on his professional involvement for more than twenty years as a guitarist and bassist on a research he together with promoters, editors, journalists, other musicians and man agers. He calls his workÃ¢â¬ËEcology of jazzÃ¢â¬â¢. This is a web of interrelations between art makers, art users and mediators. Harris provides a very rich portrait of jazz in terms of performance and reception, especially in Europe (Bob Thompson, 1962:221). More importantly is his approach to jazz music as a tool of identity and aesthetic.He asks two main questions, who owns jazz? And what is the appropriate aesthetic for the jazz music. He tries to delineate the tension between African Americans sense of ownership of the music and the increasing participation of the non African Americans both as musicians and consumers. According to his views, he suggests that the reason why many African Americans have believed that they own the origin and aesthetic value of jazz is because of the collective loss of identity that was threatening to dismantle the cohesive black communities in the post-civil rights era.This belief wa also held by many non-African Americans. In his views, Harris identifies two basic principle of coping with the dilemmas of who owns jazz. He chooses the classic dichotomies of tradition/innovation and mainstream/avant-garde. Both sides of his debate is respecting tradition and putting emphases on innovation. While other artists work tend to ward off the outside influence on the jazz music, some emphasizes the importance of accepting the necessary changes that may come with globalization of jazz music as a sign of identity by a particular group of people in their own way (Charles W, 1945: 33).At the end, Harris concludes that the globalization and the hybridization of jazz music pose a painful experience of identity as well as cultural ownership for African Americans. At the same time, he sees it as offering new interesting possibilities when players interact with the rest of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s music. Conclusion From the three works of art discussed above on the music as a sign of identity, it is clear that both artists agree that music has b een the defining link for cultural identities.In some of the African Americans views on the ownership and identity of the music, it has been grossly affected by the modernization and the globalization of the world where the different aspects of arts have been diluted. This is the conflict between tradition and modernity which has been said to be dominating the debates. In Europe the, the visual art seems to dominate the tribal art category where the sculpture was used to express the feelings of particular social response in the art scene (Alma Thomas et al 1973: 123)These arts explore the popular feelings of the people and to some extent the other group of people does not understand the con text of the grievances when responding to such complains. This was the dilemma of the music as an art in the early years of social uprising in the American society. Here western critics mostly devoted most of their attention to their culture and ways of thinking giving little attention to the exp ressions of these arts. The American cultural studies has shown emergence of arguments about the centrality of the music for the construction and maintenance of the interethnic identities.Such arguments centers on the multiplicity of the cultural flow between the African Americans, Caribbean, Britons, and North Americans. In most of this art work, ships were chosen due to their symbolic middle age passage to invoke and provide the visual image for the transatlantic interaction. However, most of the works of different artists continued to dwell in passing the message of discomfort. This identifies different principles that regard and guide relationship between different races and culture. BibliographyTololyan S, 1996: The African Diaspora-An African American perspective, Chicago, Chicago University Press Gilroy P, 1998: critical Atlantic-Movement of art, Martin Puryear, Lever Veit Erlmann, 1993: Communities Style, an art of expression, New York, Captive printers Faye Harrison, 1998: The slum Gardens, Gift of the Sandra and Charles Gilman, Jr. Foundation in memory of Dorothea L. Leonhard Alma Thomas et al, 1973: Red Rose Cantata, Denver, Colorado, acrylic on canvas Charles W, 1945: Mother and Awaiting His Return, New York, Gift of Jacob Kainen
Monday, January 6, 2020
Acceptance of Tattoos and Body Piercing in a Modern Age Andrew Sullivan Axia College of University of Phoenix According to the most recent Harris Poll, which took place in 2003, about 15% of all Americans have at least one tattoo. That translates into about 40 million people. Tattoos are becoming much more popular based on comparing those statistics to the results of a 1936 Life magazine estimates of 10 million Americans had at least one tattoo. As for body piercing, no statistics are kept, and it is unknown how many Americans have them, but healthcare providers and dentists say they are seeing more everyday. Even though most tattoos and body piercing were difficult to adorn in the past because of the discrimination against andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to a Pew Research study, Ã¢â¬Å"More than one-third of Americans between the ages of 18 and 25 have tattoos, and 40 percent of those between 26 and 40.Ã¢â¬ With such high numbers, companies are forced to have detailed rules about body art. While many companies allow employees to show thei r tattoos or piercing, a large number of professions still do not allow tattoos or certain types of body piercing to be exposed. Many companies view visible body modification, in the form of tattoos and body piercing, as an action that violates the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s dress code. Because of this rule many employees have lost their jobs without knowing how to prevent it from happening. And according to Van Buskirk (2005), in 2004 a Costco Wholesaler was sued for religious discrimination when they fired an employee for not following the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy that prohibited the adornment of facial jewelry. The employee was a member of the Church of Body Modification (CBM) and maintained that wearing facial jewelry was a practice required by her religion. After investigation of the case, it was revealed that the employee only joined the Church of Body Modification because Costco had acquired the dress code that included rules against the display of body art. Along with employers being accepting of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s tattoo or body piercing, there is also the customer or client who must be accepting of the body art. 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